- Why is skim milk powder used while reconstitution of live vaccines?What is the quantity that is used?
Since live vaccines are prepared from attenuated live viruses, skimmed milk powder acts as a stabilizer to protect the virus from adverse effects. Skimmed milk powder is added @ 6 grams/liter of water for drinking water vaccination.
- Why are killed vaccines not stored in the freezing chamber of a refrigerator?
Killed vaccines are not stored in the freezing chamber in order to prevent breaking/separation of emulsion, which results in uneven release of antigen, and thereby improper immune response.
- Why it is necessary to vaccinate the birds during cool hours of the day, especially when using live vaccines?
Since viruses are thermolabile, it is essential to carry out live vaccination at low temperatures, hence vaccination is done during the cooler hours of a day.
- For how many hours are birds deprived of water, before giving vaccines through drinking water?
This depends on the season, ambient temperature and agro-climatic zone. As a general guideline, it is advisable to withdraw water for 1 hour in summer and for 2-3 hours in winter.
- Can we use water sanitizer in water used for drinking water vaccination?
Only live vaccines are given by drinking water method. Hence if the water used for vaccination contains sanitizer, it will have a detrimental effect on the vaccine virus.
- Can antibiotics be used along with live viral vaccines?
- Can live and killed vaccines be used simultaneously?
Yes, in consultation with a veterinarian. While simultaneous vaccination routes should be different.
- What is a booster dose?
Why it is necessary to give a booster dose?Booster dose is a repeat administration of the same vaccine, which has been used earlier. A booster dose is essential for producing sufficientÃ‚Â and high level of antibodies, which will for a long duration.
- What is necrotic enteritis?
What is the treatment for it?Necrotic enteritis is a diseased condition affecting intestines of the birds. This condition causes death of some intestinal tissues leading to the death of birds. The treatment for necrotic enteritis consists of using some antibiotics like chlortetracyclineÃ‚Â & also use Agrimos premix for prevention use Zn Bacitracin in drinking water.
- What is CCRD?
CCRD is a complicated chronic respiratory disease. A microorganism called mycoplasma causes CRD alone. CCRD is ND + E.Coli or IB + E.Coli or mycoplasma + E.Coli.
- Do hot IBD vaccines have any relation with gangrenous dermatitis?
It is observed that birds getting two or more shots of hot IBD vaccine are more susceptible to gangrenous dermatitis.
- If we do priming of broilers with ND-B1 vaccine and booster also with the same strain, will it protect the birds in summer?
No, in summer, we advise use of ND (Killed) vaccine to broiler birds in first 3 days, priming with live ND-B1 vaccine and booster with LaSota vaccine. This will give full proof protection to broilers against ND in summer.
- Why are antifungals needed in feed all the year round?
Mycotoxins produced by fungi are of different types and are encountered round the year and not only in wet season. We are adding antifungals as an insurance. In the time of new crop and wet season, we must increase the dose of antifungal in feed.
- What should be the dose of enzyme phytase in feed?
Phytase should be added in feed @ 200-500 phytase units/kg. But do not replace 100% of DCP in feed. You can reduce it to some extent.
- Which component of feed interferes with folic acid?
It is mainly phytic acid. DORB is very rich in phytates.
- Why there is increase in diseases like Infectious Coryza, Fowl Cholera etc. after starting use of hot IBD vaccines?
More and more use of hot IBD vaccines is causing severe immunosuppression of birds, making them sensitive to diseases like Infectious Coryza and Fowl Cholera.
- Can IC (Killed) vaccine be used in the phase of IC outbreak?
Yes, but with variable success rate.
- Can respiratory sounds / noise be considered as CRD?
No. These sounds may be indicative of ND also.
- Can we administer IB vaccine to birds in laying stage?
No, IB vaccination in laying birds may cause temporary or permanent drop in egg production.
- How many times sera samples should be collected from broiler birds in their life cycle?
In case of broilers, sera samples should be collected only twice i.e. at the age of 3 days to estimate maternal antibodies to design vaccination program and second sample pre-slaughter to decide success of vaccination program followed.
- What is coli-bacillosis?
HOW can you prevent it?Coli-bacillosis is a condition caused by bacteria called E.Ccoli. This is not a primary disease, because E.coli organisms are always present. Some precipitating cause leads to coli-bacillosis. For prevention of coli-bacillosis proper sanitization of drinking water and minimum or no use of animal products in poultry feed are important steps.
- How much time gap must be given between two batches of broiler birds?
At least 10 days. This will allow you enough time for proper cleaning and disinfection of sheds between the batches.
- What measures are to be implemented for reducing ammonia levels in sheds?
Try to keep litter dry by 1) by regular raking of litter, 2) Avoiding water spillage, 3) Changing places of drinkers every day 4) providing adequate ventilation in sheds. 5) preventing loose droppings. Certain products are available in market for reducing ammonia in shed. These products can be mixed in litter as per directions of the manufacturers.
- In case of bacterial diseases, even if the treatment is given based on ABST, sometimes there is no response. Why?
Sometimes there is quick change in the sensitivity of bacterial organisms to the anti-bacterials. Sensitivity test (ABST) requires three days and bacteria may have changed their sensitivity during this period.
- What are the reasons for ascites and how to control?
Rapid growth, lack of ventilation, excess salt in feed, poor quality of protiens in feed, heavy round worm infestation are few of many reasons for ascites. Control will depend on the causative factor.
- HOW Late MD vaccine can be done?
First dose of MD vaccine is done on day one at hatchery. Booster dose, if needed, is advised up to 18 days of age.
- Whether debeaking can be done during laying?
This is not advisable. However if need arises because of faulty earlier debeaking, the debeaking of selected birds can be done with least possible stress on birds. But still there will be temporary drop in egg production.
- Whether killed vaccines can be used without primimg with live vaccines?
Bacterins do not need priming with live vaccines. However, killed viral vaccines need priming with live vaccines barring few exceptions like IBH (Killed) vaccine.